Tank water heaters are a dependable way to secure a fast supply of hot water for your home. The inclusion of a storage tank ensures some hot water is readily available. But over time, other substances may accumulate in the storage tank. This may be sediment or mineral buildup arriving from the main water line or an opening in the pipes. Whatever the source is, this buildup could reduce the efficiency of water heaters. In severe cases it can plug up drainage and might even lead to premature failure.
Thankfully, draining your water heater and removing sediment buildup is a relatively simple task. An experienced plumber in North America can handle the process, but you can also drain the tank on your own if you know what you’re doing. Either way, draining the tank now can help lower the risk you’ll need premature water heater replacement.
Before You Begin…
Before you start draining the tank, you’ll want to shut off the cold water supply. The supply valve connects your water heater with the main water line. Unless you have access to a well (and you may need to drain the tank more often if you do), the water main delivers all the potable water your home uses. Keeping the valve closed will prevent more water from flowing into the tank, allowing you to completely drain it.
You’ll also want to get a rubber hose, like one you can use for yard work. The hose allows you to safely drain the water heater tank without spilling water in your garage, utility closet, attic or wherever the water heater is stored. Make sure you leave the other end of the hose far away from your home to keep the water from flooding back inside.
Finally, a screwdriver can help you loosen stubborn screws or valves. You shouldn’t need any more tools than this unless you stumble upon a problem with the water heater or adjacent piping. At that point, it might be best to call a certified plumber in North America.
Step 1: Shut Off the Water Heater
After you’ve cut off the water supply, you can shut off the water heater itself. This should be on the thermostat for natural gas water heaters or through a breaker switch for electric models. The pilot setting on gas water heaters can continue to stay on during flushing, but electric models need to be completely off. This is because of the heating elements electric water heaters have, which remain submerged. In a drained tank, they can quickly overheat. You should also review the model’s manual, as some water heaters have to be completely full before the heating elements are started.
Even after you’ve shut off the water heater, you’ll need to wait for the water stored in the tank to cool down. It may be hours before the water reaches a safe temperature, so it is usually best to leave the remaining steps for the following day.
Step 2: Connect the Hose to the Water Heater’s Drain Valve
Tank water heaters have a drain valve you can use to empty the storage tank. Once you’re confident the water supply is disconnected and the water heater itself is off, go ahead and find the drain valve. Some models will have it covered up. Make sure the hose is secure to prevent spilling hot water near you and the water heater.
Step 3: Open a Faucet or Other Hot Water Tap
Your home’s plumbing uses pressure within the piping to sustain a consistent flow of water from the main water line to the rest of the house. This pressure needs to be relieved before the hot water can actually flow from the tank. By heading to the nearest faucet or spigot, you’ll alleviate the pressure inside the piping. All you have to do is open the hot water tap to relieve the pressure before heading back to the water heater.
Step 4: Release the Drain Valve
Don’t forget that this water may still have some residual heat. Open the drain valve and allow all the water to drain from the tank. This should carry sediment buildup out of the tank and away from your home. But some buildup might be stuck to the inside of the tank. Turning the cold water supply back on will help flush stubborn minerals and other substances from the tank.
Repeat this step until the water appears clear of sediment or minerals. If the drain isn’t working because of an obstruction, a trained plumber is likely required.
Step 5: Re-Shut the Valve Before Refilling the Water Heater
If everything proceeds normally, you should be able to clear out most excess sediment hiding inside your water heater. Close the drain valve, detach the hose and open the water supply to get things flowing again. As the water heater tank starts to fill, head back to the hot water tap you opened. Once cold water starts to flow, you know the pressure is back where it needs to be.
At this point, you can open the gas valve or flip the breaker switch back on. Like we mentioned before, don’t forget that certain models may need to be completely full before the water can be safely heated. Make sure you check your manufacturer’s instructions before starting the process.
Keep Your Water Heater Sediment-Free for Best Results
Tank water heaters are still a great option for supplying your hot water needs. Draining the tank every 1-2 years will help flush sediment buildup and keep things running at peak efficiency. If you think your water heater is past the point of efficient heating, consider looking for water heater replacement in North America from a technician you trust.